Hepatic Hemangioma

This image demonstrates hepatic hemangioma incidentally found while imaging the kidney. On ultrasound, hepatic hemangiomas appear as well-defined, hyperechoic, homogeneous lesions. Some of them may have posterior acoustic enhancement. The […]

Focus on FoCUS: The 4 basic views of the heart

FoCUS = Focused Cardiac Ultrasound FoCUS consists of 4 basic views of the heart namely parasternal long- and short-axis views, the apical 4-chamber view, and the subxiphoid view, as described […]

Medullary nephrocalcinosis

Nephrocalcinosis: by default, we apply this term to ‘medullary’ calcification (= medullary nephrocalcinosis), though it can occur in renal cortex (e.g. in renal cortical necrosis of pregnancy or chronic active […]

Accessory Spleen

Accessory spleen or a splenule is a congenital focus of healthy splenic tissue, that is separate from the main body of the spleen. The reported incidence is as high as […]

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is relatively a common genetic disorder, occurring in approximately 1 in every 400 – 1000 live births. It is generally an adult-onset, multisystem disorder […]

Bladder ultrasound: calculation of volume

Sonographic evaluation of the urinary bladder should be performed in any patient with dilated collecting system or frequent urinary tract infections, especially in a male. The examination is performed with […]

Parapelvic cyst mimicking hydronephrosis

Parapelvic cysts can mimic hydronephrosis because of their anechoic nature (like urine, clear fluid in the cysts is also black on ultrasound) and close proximity to the collecting system. Hydronephrosis […]

Pleural effusion: The ‘Spine sign’

Spine sign: visualization of the vertebral bodies in the thoracic cavity above the diaphragm – indicative of pleural effusion. In the absence of pleural effusion, the spine is obscured by […]

Lung ultrasound: A and B-lines

Lung ultrasonography can be used alone or in conjunction with limited echocardiography and sonographic assessment of the inferior vena cava to determine a patient’s volume status in day-to-day nephrology practice. […]

Hydronephrosis

On the sonogram, hydronephrosis appears as branching, interconnected areas of decreased echogenicity (anechoic or black in general, indicating the presence of fluid) in the renal collecting system. The source of […]

Obstructed Foley catheter

The image shows distended urinary bladder (anechoic region) despite having a Foley catheter (Foley Balloon indicated with the letter ‘F’) in place indicative of an obstructed catheter, which can occur […]

The Journey Begins

Following are some of Dr. K’s published articles on POCUS. See the visual abstracts section for other important POCUS-related literature: How does basic POCUS in nephrology practice look like? Editorial […]