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Tag: Cardiac

Pulmonary veins on cardiac ultrasound

In a recent twitter poll showing this parasternal long axis (PLAX) image, only 36% (N = 301) were able to identify the pulmonary vein. Even though the purpose of POCUS […]

Strange things around the IVC

A medical student is looking for inferior vena cava in a nephrology clinic patient and finds something ‘weird’ adjacent to the IVC.  He/she calls the nephrology fellow for help. Here […]

Pitfalls of inferior vena cava M-mode

Visual estimation of IVC collapse on B-mode (grey scale image) is generally preferred to M-mode, though in theory, M-mode measurement might be able to give accurate collapsibility index. There are […]

IVC collapse: fact or artifact?

In clinical practice, size, and collapsibility of the IVC is used as a surrogate for right atrial pressure (RAP). In spontaneously breathing patients, inspiration causes negative intrathoracic pressure and collapses […]

What is LV foreshortening?

This is a commonly heard term in echocardiography. Foreshortening occurs when the ultrasound beam does not cut through the true apex of the left ventricle but transects above and anterior […]

Septal bounce in a lupus patient

Here is a subcostal view of the heart obtained from a young lupus patient presenting with symptoms of new onset heart failure. Nephrologists may encounter this type of presentation in […]

Pericardial cyst

Pericardial cysts are uncommon and represent approximately 5% of thoracic cysts. Most of these are asymptomatic and usually detected incidentally. However, in case of chest trauma, they can rupture leading […]

Do not mistake aorta for the IVC

Mistaking aorta for the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a common pitfall and can potentially lead to patient mismanagement. Always trace the IVC superiorly and make sure it is joining […]