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Tag: Cardiac

IVC collapse: fact or artifact?

In clinical practice, size, and collapsibility of the IVC is used as a surrogate for right atrial pressure (RAP). In spontaneously breathing patients, inspiration causes negative intrathoracic pressure and collapses […]

What is LV foreshortening?

This is a commonly heard term in echocardiography. Foreshortening occurs when the ultrasound beam does not cut through the true apex of the left ventricle but transects above and anterior […]

Septal bounce in a lupus patient

Here is a subcostal view of the heart obtained from a young lupus patient presenting with symptoms of new onset heart failure. Nephrologists may encounter this type of presentation in […]

Pericardial cyst

Pericardial cysts are uncommon and represent approximately 5% of thoracic cysts. Most of these are asymptomatic and usually detected incidentally. However, in case of chest trauma, they can rupture leading […]

Do not mistake aorta for the IVC

Mistaking aorta for the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a common pitfall and can potentially lead to patient mismanagement. Always trace the IVC superiorly and make sure it is joining […]

Mitral annular calcification

Here is parasternal long axis view obtained from a patient with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease with altered bone mineral metabolism. Note the hyperechoic calcification along the posterior mitral […]

Valvular vegetations

Though transesophageal echocardiography is required in most patients suspected to have infective endocarditis because of better sensitivity, valvular vegetations can be seen on a transthoracic echocardiogram, especially when large. It […]

Other views of the heart

Please refer to ‘Focus on POCUN‘ series on the Renal Fellow Network for brief notes on other echocardiographic windows. Parasternal long axis or the PLAX view Parasternal short axis or […]

PLAX view: Orientation

The parasternal long axis view or the PLAX is obtained by placing the transducer to the left of the sternum in 3rd or 4th intercostal space with the orientation marker […]

Focus on FoCUS: The 4 basic views of the heart

FoCUS = Focused Cardiac Ultrasound FoCUS consists of 4 basic views of the heart namely parasternal long- and short-axis views, the apical 4-chamber view, and the subxiphoid view, as described […]