Particulate matter in the inferior vena cava

It is well-recognized that a dilated IVC in endurance athletes is a physiologic adaptation to repeated, intermittent volume loading and does not reflect an increased right atrial pressure. Interestingly, in […]

Prominent Eustachian valve

Above finding was incidentally noted while performing physical examination (POCUS) in a patient with heart failure and acute kidney injury. Note the thin mobile hyperechoic structure arising from the anterior […]

Revisiting pleural effusion

Identification of pleural effusions is one of the basic applications of Internal Medicine and Nephro POCUS.  As previously discussed, pleural fluid appears as an anechoic area above the diaphragm surrounding […]

Hemodynamic POCUS in cirrhosis: think beyond the IVC

In nephrology practice, acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cirrhosis often poses a diagnostic challenge owing to multitude of etiologic possibilities and overlapping presentations. Most such patients end up […]

A case of hydronephrosis

An elderly gentleman was seen in the nephrology clinic for acute kidney injury (AKI) on underlying chronic kidney disease stage III. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 18 ml/min at […]

Left atrial ridge

This apical 4-chamber view obtained from a patient with end-stage kidney disease during physical examination demonstrates some hyperechoic structure in the left atrium resembling a Q-tip. Is it abnormal? It […]

Point-of-care ultrasound in Hyponatremia

Nephrologists are often consulted for evaluation of hyponatremia. While there can be a lot of causes, the basic approach to diagnosis is simple. First, look at serum osmolality. Serum sodium […]

Hemodynamic phenotypes in Nephrology

This table (from our KI reports article) summarizes common POCUS findings in various hemodynamic phenotypes that we encounter in day-to-day nephrology practice. Basic POCUS (without cardiac Doppler) cannot differentiate between […]