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Revisiting pleural effusion

Identification of pleural effusions is one of the basic applications of Internal Medicine and Nephro POCUS.  As previously discussed, pleural fluid appears as an anechoic area above the diaphragm surrounding […]

Hemodynamic POCUS in cirrhosis: think beyond the IVC

In nephrology practice, acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cirrhosis often poses a diagnostic challenge owing to multitude of etiologic possibilities and overlapping presentations. Most such patients end up […]

A case of hydronephrosis

An elderly gentleman was seen in the nephrology clinic for acute kidney injury (AKI) on underlying chronic kidney disease stage III. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 18 ml/min at […]

Left atrial ridge

This apical 4-chamber view obtained from a patient with end-stage kidney disease during physical examination demonstrates some hyperechoic structure in the left atrium resembling a Q-tip. Is it abnormal? It […]

Point-of-care ultrasound in Hyponatremia

Nephrologists are often consulted for evaluation of hyponatremia. While there can be a lot of causes, the basic approach to diagnosis is simple. First, look at serum osmolality. Serum sodium […]

Hemodynamic phenotypes in Nephrology

This table (from our KI reports article) summarizes common POCUS findings in various hemodynamic phenotypes that we encounter in day-to-day nephrology practice. Basic POCUS (without cardiac Doppler) cannot differentiate between […]

Hiatal hernia on Focused Cardiac Ultrasound

This apical 4-chamber view is obtained from a patient with shortness of breath being managed with escalation of diuretic therapy, which eventually led to hypovolemic hyponatremia. What does it show? […]

Checklist for interpreting kidney ultrasound

In our experience, checklists help novice users to systematically interpret the sonographic findings and reduce errors. So, I made SECONDS checklist for interpretation of nephrologist-performed renal ultrasound. Simply, it prompts […]